Tag: pentest

NMAP and fping deep dive (Part II)

This is a continuation of my previous post, NMAP and fping deep dive in that post I talked about fping and NMAP and how they worked at a basic level as NMAP, in particular, has a lot more parameters that you can use depending on the task at hand.

In this post I want to cover more of NMAPs capabilities and what commands we could use to discover more about the network and what potential vulnerabilities these hosts might have that could be used to exploit them.

In the last post we found out what hosts were alive on the network and we also found out what ports were open on those hosts. The next step is to find out what OS they’re running or at least get the best guess as to what it might be.

I am going to use the -sV (version) option and also the -O (OS fingerprinting option) to get more detail on the hosts. You don’t want to blindly attack a network without gathering all the information possible about your target or you run the risk of causing the target to crash because you ran the wrong tool against it. Information gathering is one of the most important parts of penetration testing.

As Abraham Lincoln once said, “Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe.”

The first command to run is the -sV command that will give us more information on the ports that are open and what version the service is running.

Screenshot from 2018-05-27 12-24-44

The administrator might have changed the port to a non-standard port as is the case for the host at You can see the port is 81 but the service using that port is HTTP which is usually on port 80 also if you remember this is the host that did not respond to the ping sweep when using fping.

Screenshot from 2018-05-27 16-27-58

To build on this we can now run the -O command with nmap. This command will send special probes to try and figure out what OS is running, for example, IIS, Apache?

The command is $:nmap -O,6,48,96,99,100,213

Here instead of using /24 I am only running the OS scan on the hosts we already know are alive on the network, this saves us a lot of time as I am only concentrating the scan on specific hosts.

Screenshot from 2018-05-27 12-51-03

From the output you can see that host at is a Windows XP machine. From this, we could start to look for vulnerabilities on Windows XP for the services they’re running.

To summarise we started off not knowing what IP addresses were alive for this we used the fping tool and also nmap -sn command. We then ran more nmap commands to figure out what ports were open and also the versions of those open ports. Lastly, we ran the OS fingerprint command to try to figure out what OS the hosts were using.

I hope this was useful.

[PenTest] Network Mapping



You should NEVER run any of the tools that are shown on my blog or on any of the IP addresses I’ve used for illustrative purposes without proper authorisation to do so.


So you want to see what hosts are alive on a network that you have been asked to Pen Test. After you’ve done some reconnaissance you have an IP range of that is used by the network in question. There are a couple of tools that will do the job for us here, they are fping and nmap. The focus of this blog post will be the fping tool a separate blog post will show the nmap tool.

fping is a ping sweep tool. If we were to try and test each of the IP addresses in the range using traditional ping it would take a very long time.

fping is installed by default on Kali Linux if you are running a different flavour of Linux you can run the apt-get command to install it.

#sudo apt-get install fping

To use fping it is straightforward. I will use my own local Wifi address range to test what addresses are alive in the range.

#fping -a -g

the -a option is used to only show addresses that are alive.

the -g option tells the tool that it is a ping sweep that needs to be carried out instead of a traditional ping test.


As you can see there are many IP addresses in use from that range. This is very useful information as we now know what IP addresses have been assigned to a device in the network they might be servers or hosts more on how to find that out in the next blog post using the nmap tool.

Note when using the fping tool on a LAN or WLAN you are connected to you will get [ICMP Host Unreachable] messages for IP addresses that aren’t in use. If you do not want to see these displayed in the output you can send the standard out errors to /dev/null using the following command.

#fping -a -g 2>/dev/null

In my next blog post, I will show you a very very powerful tool called nmap that does the same as fping and a lot lot more.